hypogaea. They also contain about 25 g of protein per 100 g serving, a higher proportion than in many tree nuts. Valencia types are three- to five-seeded and smooth, with no constriction of the shell between the seeds. Harvesting occurs in two stages. Also, in the Peruvian city of Arequipa, a dish called ocopa consists of a smooth sauce of roasted peanuts and hot peppers (both native to the region) with roasted onions, garlic, and oil, poured over meat or potatoes. Since 1940, the southeastern US region has seen a shift to production of Runner group peanuts. [8][9][10] The initial hybrid would have been sterile, but spontaneous chromosome doubling restored its fertility, forming what is termed an amphidiploid or allotetraploid. They are comparatively tall, reaching a height of 125 cm (49 in) and a spread of 75 cm (30 in). [29], Peanuts are particularly common in Peruvian and Mexican cuisine, both of which marry indigenous and European ingredients. Cultivars of the Spanish group include 'Dixie Spanish', 'Improved Spanish 2B', 'GFA Spanish', 'Argentine', 'Spantex', 'Spanette', 'Shaffers Spanish', 'Natal Common (Spanish)', "White Kernel Varieties', 'Starr', 'Comet', 'Florispan', 'Spanhoma', 'Spancross', 'OLin', 'Tamspan 90', 'AT 9899–14', 'Spanco', 'Wilco I', 'GG 2', 'GG 4', 'TMV 2', and 'Tamnut 06'. Another use is peanut oil for cooking. Peanuts originally came to Indonesia from the Philippines, where the legume derived from Mexico in times of Spanish colonization. Boiled peanuts are a popular snack in India, China, West Africa, and the southern United States. For the folk song, see, Baughman, Todd; Grichar, James; Black, Mark; Woodward, Jason; Porter, Pat; New, Leon; Baumann, Paul; McFarland, Mark ". Atypically among legume crop plants, peanut pods develop underground (geocarpy) rather than above ground. In 2019, Georgia (nearly 50 percent) grew the largest proportion of all peanuts followed by Florida (over 11 percent), Alabama (over 10 percent), Texas (over nine percent), North Carolina (over eight percent), and South Carolina (over four percent). There are bunc… Peanuts are a common ingredient of several types of relishes (dishes which accompany nshima) eaten in Malawi and in the eastern part of Zambia, and these dishes are common throughout both countries. Peanuts have a variety of industrial end uses. Feed values and feeding potential of major agro-byproducts", "Nutrition facts for peanuts, all types, raw, USDA Nutrient Data", "Association of Nut Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality", "Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion – Nuts and Coronary Heart Disease (Docket No 02P-0505)", "Nutrition facts for oil, peanut, salad or cooking, USDA Nutrient Data", "Some nutritional characteristics of kernel and oil of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)", National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, "Factors Associated with the Development of Peanut Allergy in Childhood", "Nothing's Safe: Some Schools Ban Peanut Butter as Allergy Threat", "One 5-year-old's allergy leads to class peanut ban", "Accidental exposures to peanut in a large cohort of Canadian children with peanut allergy", "Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts", "[Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and its concentration in imported peanut samples]", "Why Georgia farmers decided to shell their own peanuts", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peanut&oldid=990992662, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with incomplete citations from November 2012, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with self-published sources from February 2020, Articles needing additional references from December 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 18:07. Subspecies A. h. hypogaea types spread more on the ground and have longer crop cycles. The machine lifts the "bush" from the ground and shakes it, then inverts the bush, leaving the plant upside down on the ground to keep the peanuts out of the soil. [48], Some studies show that regular consumption of peanuts is associated with a lower specific risk of mortality from certain diseases. [54][55] Extractable from whole peanuts using a simple water and centrifugation method, the oil is being considered by NASA's Advanced Life Support program for future long-duration human space missions.[56]. Many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art. [33] Peanut butter is an ingredient in Nigeria's "African salad". Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. A recent study in Canada has shown that there is no difference in the percentage of accidental exposures occurring in schools prohibiting peanuts than in schools allowing them. Native to South America, they thrive best in a warm climate. Peanuts can be used like other legumes and grains to make a lactose-free, milk-like beverage, peanut milk, which is promoted in Africa as a way to reduce malnutrition among children. 1. Peanuts grow well in southern Mali and adjacent regions of the Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal; peanuts are similar in both agricultural and culinary qualities to the Bambara groundnut native to the region, and West Africans have adopted the crop as a staple. The United States[27] is a leading exporter of peanut butter, and itself consumes $800 million of peanut butter annually.[28]. [15] As a legume, it belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae (also known as Leguminosae, and commonly known as the bean or pea family). Peanuts are used in the Malian meat stew maafe. After the peanuts have dried sufficiently, they are threshed, removing the peanut pods from the rest of the bush. Peanut shells are used in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives, fuel, cellulose (used in rayon and paper), and mucilage (glue). Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil with a pH of 5.9–7. [68], If peanut plants are subjected to severe drought during pod formation, or if pods are not properly stored, they may become contaminated with the mold Aspergillus flavus which may produce carcinogenic substances called aflatoxins. [19] Depending on growing conditions and the cultivar of peanut, harvest is usually 90 to 130 days after planting for subspecies A. h. fastigiata types, and 120 to 150 days after planting for subspecies A. h. hypogaea types. [37] Peanut soup is found on restaurant menus in the southeastern states. Long, pointed pegs (also called peduncles) grow … A green peanut is a term to describe farm fresh harvested peanuts that have not been dehydrated. [16] Pods are 3 to 7 centimetres (1 to 3 in) long, normally containing one to four seeds.[11][15]. Their capacity to fix nitrogen means that, providing they nodulate properly, peanuts benefit little or not at all from nitrogen-containing fertilizer,[17] and they improve soil fertility. The flowers are 1 to 1.5 cm (3⁄8 to 5⁄8 in) across, and yellowish orange with reddish veining. [65], Refined peanut oil will not cause allergic reactions in most people with peanut allergies. They also stated, "Refined peanut oil does not seem to pose a risk to most people with peanut allergy." This allows the peanuts to dry slowly to a little less than a third of their original moisture level over a period of three to four days. Per person, Americans eat 2.7 kg (6 lb) of peanut products annually, spending a total of $2 billion in peanut retail purchases.[37]. [8] Cultivated peanuts (A. hypogaea) arose from a hybrid between two wild species of peanut, thought to be A. duranensis and A. Subspecies A. h. fastigiata types are more upright in their growth habit and have shorter crop cycles. Salted peanuts, peanut butter, peanut brittle and roasted peanuts are very common peanut products. Nigeria is the largest groundnut producer in Africa accounting for 30% of the total Africa’s nut production. Peanuts are simple to grow and like to be planted in full sun. The following is a list of countries where peanuts are grown: China grows more peanuts than anywhere else in the world. Like those of many other legumes, the leaves are nyctinastic; that is, they have "sleep" movements, closing at night. Avoiding cross contamination with peanuts and peanut products, (along with other severe allergens like shellfish) is a promoted and common practice which chefs and restaurants worldwide are becoming aware of. Most gardeners have more luck by starting the plants indoors early in the season and transplanting their seedlings into an outdoor garden once the soil warms up.

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