Reports, 3: 224-230, Bishop, C. D.; Angus, R. A.; Watts, S. A., 1995. Feather meal. Complementary responses between feather meal and poultry by-product meal with or without ruminally protected methionine and lysine in growing calves. J. Rev. Co-product feeds in Europe: Animal feeds derived from industrial processing. rate for approximately 3 months where more than 75 percent of all the World Poult. Feathers are a byproduct of broiler, turkey and and other poultry processing operations. To make the nitrogen available to plants feather meal No difference in performance was observed when up to 4 % feather meal was fed to piglets 0-4 weeks of age and up to 8 % could be fed to the 4 to 8 week old age group (Khajarern et al., 1982b). Sci. J. Anim. In juvenile (20 g) carps, up to 40% fish meal could be replaced by hydrolyzed feather meal without impairing growth rate and feed conversion ratio. The experiments based on the simple substitution of other protein sources with feather meal often led to poor performance because of the amino acid deficiencies due to the imbalance of feather meal protein. Amino acid supplementation of hydrolyzed feather meal diets for finisher pigs. Res., 1 (1): 10-12, Thomas, V. M. ; Clark, C. K. ; Schuldt, C. M., 1994. In common carps, the nutritive value of feather meal was found to be intermediate between that of poultry by-product meal and that of blood meal (Trzebiatowski et al., 1982). Sci., 68 (9): 2936–2944, Grant, R. J. ; Haddad, S. G., 1998. Feather meal and other processed keratins as dietary sources of protein for poultry production. When finisher pig diets were formulated with feather meal (9.7 % dietary as-fed) to totally replace soybean meal (iso-nitrogenous diets with supplmented with different amino acids), pigs fed on feather meal diets had lower feed intake, lower indispensable amino acid intake, and they grew slowlier. The feathers are cooked and sterilized under intense heat using steam pressure cookers before being dried and ground into a powder. In several cases, higher rumen undegradable protein supply provided by feather meal is not limiting for milk production, e.g. ; Antonini, A.G., 2018. According to the regulations, it may be used exclusively for the feeding of pets. Proximate composition of selected potential feedstuffs for Nile tilapia (, Munguti, J. M. ; Waidbacher, H. ; Liti, D. M. ; Straif, M. ; Zollitsch, W. J., 2009. Values of SID obtained in China for an enzymatic feather meal were much higher than NRC values with 77% for lysine, 85% for isoleucine, and 85% for trytophane; it was attributed to the process (Pan et al., 2016). Dev., Bangkok (Thailand).- Bangkok (Thailand), 13-20. Res. Addition of ruminally degradable crude protein and branched-chain volatile fatty acids to diets containing hydrolyzed feather meal and blood meal for lactating cows. It is a slow release fertilizer providing plants with nitrogen Feather meal, like other processed animal proteins, cannot be used everywhere to feed all species: see Potential constraints and recommendations per species below. Nutr., 48 (15): 33-36, Löest, C. A.; Titgemeyer, E. C.; Drouillard, J. S.; Coetzer, C. M.; Hunter, R. D.; Bindel, D. J.; Lambert, B. D., 2002. In a later experiment, inclusion of feather meal up to 10% in the diet did not affect DM or CP digestibilities of the diet but decreased the Biological Value of the dietary protein (Buaban et al., 1989). Zootec., 40: 98-115, Rakyuttithamkul, E., 2005. J. Cleaner Prod., 252: 119845, Cao, S.; Li, P.; Huang, B.; Song, Z.; Hao, T.; Wang, C.; Wang, M., 2020. Dairy Sci., 81 (5): 1358-1363. Sci., 89 (12): 2626–2633, Barber, R. S. ; Braude, R. ; Mitchell, K. G., 1965. In older animals, feather meal can be used at moderate levels (5%) with adequate amino acids supplementation (Balloun et al., 1974, El Boushy et al., 1990). Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens. Zootec., 55 (3): 324-333, Rojas, O. J.; Stein, H. H., 2012. When cows were given feather meal, the deficiency in specific amino acids compromised the increase in milk and protein yield in response to increasing the frequency of milking, as observed with a better amino acid balance (Yeo et al., 2003). Another issue is that keratin, the main component (80-100%) of feather proteins, is poorly digestible when raw (Moran et al., 1967). Bras. FAOSTAT. Alkaline hydrolysis of keratin can be done with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Vet. Effects of substitution of freshwater shrimp meal (, Munguti, J. M., 2007. Hydrolyzed feather meal in sheep diets. Feather meal and its nutritional impact. Sci., 53 (3):1084-1095, Bandegan, A. ; Kiarie, E. ; Payne, R. L. ; Crow, G. H. ; Guenter, W. ; Nyachoti, C. M., 2010. Evaluation of poultry-feather meal as a dietary protein source for Indian major carp, Hernandez, F. I. L.; Sanchez, L. M. B.; Vieira, R. A. M.; da Silva, J. H. S., 1998. Bioconversion of poultry feather into feather meal using proteolytic Bacillus Species: A comparative study. Effects of graded levels of feather meal as a dietary protein source on growth performance, haematology, serum chemistry and clinical enzyme activities in rabbit. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes, 54: 87-102.

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