The polar functional groups like hydroxide, carbonyl, carboxyl, etc are readily soluble in water. (a) Identify the functional groups in the ball-and-stick model of pantothenic acid, vitamin 85. Avocados are an excellent dietary source of pantothenic acid, vitamin 85. Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Functional Groups are the substituent atoms or group of atoms that attach to a molecule and enable them to participate in specific chemical reactions. Water readily dissolves sugar because both sugar and water contain a hydroxyl group and hydroxyl groups interact strongly with each other. Polar molecules (with +/- charges) are attracted to water molecules and are hydrophilic. (b) At which sites can pantothenic acid hydrogen bond to water? Functional groups undergo the same chemical reactions no matter how large or small the molecule is. Water also interacts with other molecules that have charged functional groups and/or functional groups with hydrogen bond donors or acceptors. This functional group is polar because the electronegative oxygen has a strong attraction for electrons. Water is attracted to this group, and therefore molecules that have this group (such as sugars) tend to dissolve in water. Clearly illustrated here the carbonyl group bonds with a carbon atom to form a ring structure that is often found in polysaccharides that usually form hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups. [q]In the molecule below, the functional group attached to the right side of the central carbon is a(n) _____ group (note: the central carbon has the R 1 hanging below it: you’ll learn what that is very soon). A substance with sufficient polar or charged character may dissolve or be highly miscible in water is referred to as being hydrophilic (hydro- = “water”; … As the polarity of the functional groups decreases the solubility of the molecule in water decreases. Aspirin is more soluble in basic (alkaline) solutions, so it readily dissolves in … The presence of functional groups explains the maxim in chemistry that “like dissolves like.” The mutual solubility of compounds is due to the interaction of shared functional groups. Covalent bonds link the atoms within functional groups and connect them to the rest of the molecule. Carbohydrates usually contain a carbonyl (=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) functional group. of acidic and basic functional groups, the roles of water and lipid soluble functional groups, the types of chemical interactions possible between functional groups and their biological targets, the specific routes of metabolism associated with specific functional groups, and how functional groups can be altered to provide a therapeutic benefit. Functional groups include hydroxyl, methyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, and sulfhydryl. The functional group to the right of the central carbon is an carboxyl group. [hangman] [c*]carboxyl [f]Awesome. A particular functional group will almost always display its characteristic chemical behavior when it is present in a compound. Functional groups are clusters of atoms with characteristic structure and functions. Examples of functional groups include the hydroxyl group, ketone group, amine group, and ether group. Aspirin contains polar functional groups which can form hydrogen bonds with polar water molecules. Because of their importance in understanding organic chemistry, functional groups have characteristic names that often carry over in the naming of individual compounds incorporating specific groups. Many of the same functional groups that raise the boiling point of a compound (carbonyl and hydroxyl groups) also increase its solubility in water. Aspirin is only slightly soluble in water and acidic solutions such as is present in the stomach. Alcohols are characterized by this functional group. (c) Predict the water solubility of pantothenic acid. Nonpolar molecules are repelled by water and do not dissolve in water; are hydrophobic. The size of the molecule and functional groups present on the molecule also determine whether or not it will be soluble in a particular solvent.

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