This solution can be evaporated to produce caesium chloride or transformed into caesium alum or caesium carbonate. [11] Xenon was used in the experimental spacecraft Deep Space 1 launched in 1998. "[72] These clocks measure frequency with an error of 2 to 3 parts in 1014, which corresponding to an accuracy of 2 nanoseconds per day, or one second in 1.4 million years. It is used in photoelectric cells because caesium-based cathodes, such as the intermetallic compound K2CsSb, have a low threshold voltage for emission of electrons. The fuel was ionized by contact with a charged tungsten electrode. [79] The range of photoemissive devices using caesium include optical character recognition devices, photomultiplier tubes, and video camera tubes. [11], Roasting pollucite with calcium carbonate and calcium chloride yields insoluble calcium silicates and soluble caesium chloride. It is also well-documented that mushrooms from contaminated forests accumulate radiocaesium (caesium-137) in the fungal sporocarps. Furthermore, it is biodegradable and may be recycled, which is important in view of its high cost (about $4,000 per barrel in 2001). Caesium-134, and to a lesser extent caesium-135, have also been used in hydrology to measure the caesium output by the nuclear power industry. Caesium hydroxide is a very strong base, and will rapidly corrode glass. Cesium hydroxide solution 50 wt. [102] Caesium may have been developed to reduce the radar signature of exhaust plumes in the Lockheed A-12 CIA reconnaissance aircraft. % in H 2 O, 99% trace metals basis CAS Number 21351-79-1. The International System of Units (SI) defines the second as the duration of 9,192,631,770 cycles at the microwave frequency of the spectral line corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine energy levels of the ground state of caesium-133. [note 6][66][67][68] Caesium was the first element to be discovered with a spectroscope, which had been invented by Bunsen and Kirchhoff only a year previously. Potassium, rubidium, and caesium form insoluble salts with chloroplatinic acid, but these salts show a slight difference in solubility in hot water, and the less-soluble caesium and rubidium hexachloroplatinate ((Cs,Rb)2PtCl6) were obtained by fractional crystallization. Since 1967, the International System of Measurements has based the primary unit of time, the second, on the properties of caesium. NACRES NA.23 [73] Caesium formate brine can be blended with potassium and sodium formates to decrease the density of the fluids to that of water (1.0 g/cm3, or 8.3 pounds per gallon). [75] Caesium clocks have improved over the past half-century and are regarded as "the most accurate realization of a unit that mankind has yet achieved. Though not commercially feasible, the ore can be directly reduced with potassium, sodium, or calcium in vacuum can produce caesium metal directly. [112] Radiocaesium follows potassium and tends to accumulate in plant tissues, including fruits and vegetables. This can occur with other alkali metals, but caesium is so potent that this explosive reaction can be triggered even by cold water. After reduction of the hexachloroplatinate with hydrogen, caesium and rubidium were separated by the difference in solubility of their carbonates in alcohol. Manfred Bick, Horst Prinz, "Cesium and Cesium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. This is sometimes called "high pH therapy." [11] The caesium standard is the primary standard for standards-compliant time and frequency measurements. 2CsOH + H 2 SO 4 → Cs 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O [ Check the balance ] Cesium hydroxide react with sulfuric acid to produce cesium sulfate and water. Caesium iodide (CsI), bromide (CsBr) and caesium fluoride (CsF) crystals are employed for scintillators in scintillation counters widely used in mineral exploration and particle physics research to detect gamma and X-ray radiation. [94] It has also been used in well logging devices for measuring the electron density of the rock formations, which is analogous to the bulk density of the formations. [11], Caesium-based atomic clocks use the electromagnetic transitions in the hyperfine structure of caesium-133 atoms as a reference point. Completion fluids assist the emplacemen… [83] Like other alkali metals, caesium has a great affinity for oxygen and is used as a "getter" in vacuum tubes. Known year-to-year variation within that period allows correlation with soil and sediment layers. [73], Caesium metal is one of the most reactive elements and is highly explosive in the presence of water. [111] The principal use of nonradioactive caesium is as caesium formate in petroleum drilling fluids because it is much less toxic than alternatives, though it is more costly. [116] Accumulation of caesium-137 in lakes has been a great concern after the Chernobyl disaster. [11] Caesium also was, and still is, used as a source of positive ions in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). [82], The element is used as an internal standard in spectrophotometry. Cesium hydroxide react with sulfuric acid. [110], The median lethal dose (LD50) for caesium chloride in mice is 2.3 g per kilogram, which is comparable to the LD50 values of potassium chloride and sodium chloride.

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